Judging from the studies below, the deceptive foodie calls
stand in stark contrast to the straightforward sugar dating
B Collisson, JL Howell, T Harig. (2019). Foodie Calls: When Women Date Men for a Free Meal (Rather Than a Relationship). https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1948550619856308
A foodie call occurs when a person, despite a lack of romantic attraction to a suitor, chooses to go on a date to receive a free meal. The present study examines predictors of a deceptive form of the foodie call in the context of male–female dates: when a woman purposefully misrepresents her romantic interest in a man to dine at his expense. In two studies, we surveyed women regarding their foodie call behavior, dark triad personality traits, traditional gender role beliefs, and online dating history. We found 23–33% of women surveyed had engaged in a foodie call. In Study 1, dark triad and traditional gender role beliefs significantly predicted previous foodie call behavior and its perceived acceptability. Study 2 employed fuller measures and suggested again that dark triad traits predicted foodie calls and their perceived acceptability.
One limitation was reliance on self-reported foodie calls. People may have misreported their history to avoid seeming manipulative or misremembered bad dates as foodie calls to view their taste in men positively.
S Upadhyay. (2021). Sugaring: Understanding the World of Sugar Daddies and Sugar Babies. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2020.1867700
A growing practice reflecting hookup culture and technological entrepreneurship, a “sugar arrangement” is a “beneficial relationship” between a “sugar baby” and a “sugar daddy”. In exchange for financial support, a sugar baby offers dating and companionship. In this study, I explored sugar culture in the United States: the reasons individuals are attracted to it and the benefits sugaring provides for them. I examined 90 sugar baby profiles and 108 sugar daddy profiles on SeekingArrangement.com; I also studied discussion forums and responses on LetsTalkSugar.com. Participants perceived sugar dating to be drama-free, casual, mutually beneficial and different from conventional romantic relationships. Sugaring provides a discrete, short- or long-term arrangement for individuals who attempt to avoid the stigma associated with commercial sex workers. A key finding was that both sugar babies and sugar daddies described techniques to mentally and emotionally distance themselves from being associated with the sex industry.
L Gunnarsson, S Strid. (2021). Chemistry or Service? Sugar Daddies’ (Re)quest for Mutuality within the Confines of Commercial Exchange. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2021.1952155
With the emergence and global proliferation of “sugar dating” websites, the phenomenon of sugar dating is gaining increased attention. Sugar dating is described by these websites as arrangements based on an exchange of financial or other forms of support for intimacy and companionship. The framing of sugar dating as something in between a business transaction and mutually enjoyable dating serves as the point of departure of this article, which draws on semi-structured interviews and a survey questionnaire with “sugar daddies” engaged in heterosexual sugar dating in Sweden. We examined how the tension between economic instrumentality and the ideal of mutual enjoyment is played out in “sugar daddies’” accounts of their sugar dating experiences. We demonstrate that the participants desire encounters with “sugar babies” to be based on both sexual and relational mutuality, i.e., they want the women to enjoy being with them beyond the economic rewards. We show that the men’s use of economic incentives to gain access to “sugar babies” stands in a relationship of tension with their desire for interactions to be based on mutuality. However, through various mechanisms they still manage to reap the fruits of the experience of mutuality offered in sugar dating encounters.
KM Kirkeby. (2019). College women's motivations for sugar dating. https://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/handle/123456789/201810
Sugar dating is a specific form of dating that is typically characterized by wealthier, older men (known as sugar daddies) financially supporting younger, less financially secure women (known as sugar babies) in exchange for companionship and sexual intimacy. This phenomenon has become increasingly prevalent among college females—presumably as a means to offset the rising cost of tuition. Whether or not the primary motivation for engaging in sugar dating is financial, as media reports suggest, was explored in this proposed study in addition to other possible motivating factors. This study also examined the demographic and personality characteristics of sugar dating women and assessed how they compare to non-sugar dating women. Beyond motivations for engaging in sugar dating, the present research explored the outcomes of it, as well as the degree to which they may be similar or different to the outcomes experienced by women who engage in other forms of sex work.
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the factors that motivate college women to pursue sugar dating. The findings from the first research question revealed that, similar to motivations cited by other sex workers (including student sex workers), sugar babies rated financial reasons as most important reason to sugar date. Paying for household expenses was rated as most important, followed by paying for education. The fact that paying for education was rated higher than paying off student loans appears to support previous research in which students have cited the ability to reduce the amount of student loans required to pay for their education as a key benefit to engaging in sex work. Preference to having a standard wage job was also rated as being of high importance, which supports recent findings in which students cited the ability of being able to work fewer hours while earning more money as a primary motivation for entering the sex industry, in addition to finding the prospects of hourly wage jobs demeaning and nonsensical. These findings indicated that, on average, sugar babies engaged in sex with their sugar daddies two to four times a month, which comprised about 25 percent of the total time spent with sugar daddies. This further suggests that earning money through sugar dating affords women fewer, more flexible work hours. This flexibility appears to be particularly enticing to students in terms of adjusting their work schedules to study for exams and other academic endeavors. On average, sugar babies were somewhat confident of being able to support their current lifestyle through alternative means and leaned toward wanting to continue sugar dating, indicating some ambivalence, but overall supporting similar findings indicating that women engaged in sex work generally prefer their work to other alternatives. Sugar babies also rated many of the items belonging to the luxury motivations factor, such as fine dining opportunities, paying for a social life, and shopping sprees as being important, which is consistent with previous research where sex workers have cited the ability to attain a nicer lifestyle as a key motivator. Social motivating factors, such as feeling valued/special, and sugar daddy as a mentor/source of knowledge were rated as being slightly higher than average, suggesting that they are also perceived as benefits of sugar dating. Finding a long-term romantic partner was rated as being of relatively little importance, suggesting that contrary to marketing solicitation by sugar dating websites, sugar babies are not as concerned with the traditional romantic-like characteristics of arrangements. This could be due to the increased age at which first marriages typically occur, which is currently a median age of 27.4 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2017). Consequently, women may be delaying interest in finding a longterm partner until after graduating from college. Sugar dating women also indicated that supporting children/family were of little importance in terms of their motivations; however, this study did not inquire whether the women had dependents to support, which means we cannot draw conclusions about this. Support for alcohol or other drug use had the lowest importance rating, which is consistent with findings from previous research regarding non-street-based sex work, and further contradicts the stereotypes that women who sell sex are primarily motivated to do so due to drug addiction.
The results of this study also revealed that about half (54.5%) of sugar babies used sugar dating as a primary source of income, suggesting that many women may utilize sugar dating as a means to supplement additional income while working jobs that allow them to build skills and perhaps deflect attention from the fact that they sugar date. This may also partially explain why women were somewhat confident that they could find alternative work to sustain their current lifestyle; however, this study did not inquire into the allowances that sugar babies receive from sugar daddies, which could have shed more light on the matter.
Similar to previous research indicating a rise in the willingness of students to engage in sex work, about half of non-sugar dating women stated that they would not consider doing. Twenty-six percent of non-sugar dating women in this study were willing to consider sugar dating, with another 20% reporting that they weren’t sure, which is an increase in the percentages cited by previous research. Betzer et al. found that only 5% of students could imagine engaging in sex work—with another 28% imagining doing so given certain circumstances—and Roberts et al. found that 16.5% of students were willing to work in the sex industry, suggesting that the notion of utilizing sex to pay for the high cost of tuition is becoming more socially acceptable among students. However, because this study was advertised as a study examining women’s experiences with nontraditional forms of dating, these results cannot be taken as representative of all college women.